مطالعه تطبیقی تمایل افراد جامعه نسبت به رعایت اخلاق: با تأکید بر رعایت هنجار انصاف در سطح جامعه

وحید نقدی

چکیده


هدف این پژوهش، کشفِ دستورالعمل­های علّی و نسبتاً عام و شاکله­هایی از شرایط سیستمی برای نائل آمدن به ترویج اخلاق در سطح جامعه است. این پژوهش به­طور عمده از نظریه «نظم اجتماعی» به‌عنوان یک نظریه ترکیبی و چندوجهی بهره برده است. با توجه به اهداف این پژوهش و به­کارگیری دانش محتوایی و اطلاعات موجود، روش تطبیقی کیفی اتخاذ شده است. برای این منظور، نه کشور چین، ژاپن، کُره جنوبی، تایوان، سنگاپور، مالزی، انگلستان، سوئد و ایران مورد تحلیل فازی قرار گرفته­اند. بر اساس نتایج تحلیل فازی، شرایط عام دستیابی به توسعه اخلاقی از سه مسیر می­گذرد. مسیر نخست، وجود برنامه مدون با ارزش­های عینی و مشخص در نظام تعلیم و تربیت رسمی است. دومین مسیر، تقویت ملاک تلاش در توزیع منابع است. سومین مسیر، از ترکیب عطفی سه شرط لازم به­کارگیری ملاک شایستگی در توزیع منابع؛ محترم­دانستن سلسله مراتب و کمینه­سازی وفاداریِ سیاسی در نظام تعلیم و تربیت رسمی برخوردار بوده است. در این میان جوامعی که توانسته­اند اجتماعِ سازمانی را در سطح سیستم تقویت کنند، در تعمیم تعهد اعیان اجتماعی و تحقق این سه مسیر موفق­تر بوده­اند.


واژگان کلیدی


تربیت اخلاقی، هنجار انصاف، ملاک شایستگی، ملاک تلاش، اجتماع مدرسه‌ای، تحلیل تطبیقی.

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