Exploring the causal mechanism on the rule of law

Document Type : علمی -پژوهشی


Rule of law is one of the most ambiguous and complex concepts in social sciences. This vagueness and complexity is mainly because of its interdisciplinary usage. Beside legal science, sociology, political sciences and philosophy of law, study the same subject from different angles. On the other side, historical evolution of the subject have presented at least six different usage from the same concept. Generally we can define rule of law as equality before the law, but the problem is that this kind of equality is vague. Current paper is divided to two section. First definition of rule of law in three dimensions and second part is about exploring causal mechanism of the concept.


  1. فهرست منابع:
  2. • اسکاچپول، تدا (1389) دولتها انقلابهای اجتماعی ،ترجمه سید مجید روین تن، تهران، انتشارات سروش.
  3. • اندرسون، پری (1382) تبارهای دولتهای استبدادی، ترجمه حسن مرتضوی، تهران، نشر ثالث.
  4. • بندیکس، راینهارد (1388) سیمای فکری ماکس وبر، ترجمه محمود رامبد، تهران، انتشارات هرمس.
  5. • چلبی، مسعود (1389) تحلیل نظری منشأ و ارتباط هنجارهای اجتماعی و نابرابریها، تحلیل اجتماعی نظم و نابرابری اجتماعی، شماره 4/59.
  6. • دوتوکویل، آلکسیس (1386) انقلاب فرانسه و رژیم پیش از آن، ترجمه محسن ثلاثی، انتشارات مروارید.
  7. • سوبول، آلبر(1374) انقلاب فرانسه، ترجمه ن. کسرایان، تهران، انتشارات شباهنگ.
  8. • مور، برینگتون(1386)، ریشه های اجتماعی استبداد و دمراسی، ترجمه حسین بشیریه، تهران، انتشارات.
  9. • Gill, Graeme (2008) Bourgeoisie, State, and democracy, Oxford University Press.
  10. • Kelsen, Hans (1973) what is justice? In H. Kelsen , Essays in legal and moral philosophy. Ed. Ota Weinberger. Trans.P. heath, 1-26. Dordrecht: Reidel ( 1st ed, 1953).
  11. • Lachman, Richard (1989) Elite conflict and state formation in 16th and 17th century England and France, American Sociological review, Vol.54, pp. 141-162
  12. • Lefebvre, George (1962) the French revolution, Columbia University press.
  13. • Man, Michael (1993) The sources of social power, vol II: The rise of classes and nation stares, 1760-1914. Cambridge, England: Cambrige University press.
  14. • Morrisson Christian and Wyne Synder (2000) The income inequality of France in historical perspective, European Review of Economic History, Vol.4, pp 59-83.
  15. • Osman, Julia (2010) The citizen army of old regime, A dissertation submitted to the faculty of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the, Department of History.
  16. • Parker, David (1997) Class and state in early modern France: the road to the modernity, Oxford University Press
  17. • Raz, Joseph (1977) the rule of law and its virtue, in the authority of law: essays of law and morality, Oxford publication.
  18. • See, Hennry (2004) Economic and Social conditions in France during the eighteenth century, Batoche Books.
  19. • Skocpol, Theda. 1979. States and Social Revolutions: A Comparative Analysis of France, Russia, and China. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
  20. • Smiller, Joseph (1989) Natural law in French revolution, Oxford University press.
  21. • Smin, Robert (1969) law in post- revolution France, Journal of public law, Columbia University, Vol.54.
  22. • Stwart, John (1966) Law and society in France, Journal of public law, Columbia university, Vol.45.
  23. • Tamahana, Brain (2004) on the rule of law: History, politics, theory, Cambridge university press.
  24. • Trevino, A, Javier (1996) The sociology of law: Classical and contemporary perspectives, New York, St. Martin’s press.
  25. • Turner, Jonathan (2003) Human institutions: A theory of societal evolution, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, INC.
  26. • Martin A. Rogoff,) (1997A Comparison of Constitutionalism in France and the United States, Maine Law Review, Vol. 49. pp. 46-64.
  27. • Oates, jack Lawson (1971) The influence of the French revolution on legal and judicial reform, A thesis suited in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of master of arts, university of British Columbia.
  28. • Hayek, F. A (1994)The Road to Serfdom, London: Routledge.
  29. • Haggard, S, MacIntyre, A, & Tide, L. (2008) the rule of law and economic development, Annual Review of Political Science, 11, 205-234.
  30. • Thronhill, Chris (2011) A sociology of constitutions: constitutions and state legitimacy in historical – sociological perspective, Cambridge University press.
  31. • Tilly, Charles (2007) Democracy, Cambridge University press.
  32. • Trubeck, David M )1972( Max Weber on law and rise of capitalism, online paper, available in http://digitalcommons.law.yale.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=4993&context=fss_papers
  33. • Rueschemeyer, Dietrich, Evelyne Huber Stephens and John D. Stephens (2001) capitalist development and democracy, University of Chicago press.
  34. • -Grusky, David B. (ed.), Social Stratification, Boulder, Westview, 2001.
  35. • -Grusky, David. Foundations of a neo-Durkheimian class analysis, in Wright, Erik Olin. Approaches to Class, Cambridge University Press: 2005.
  36. منابع فرانسوی
  37. • Sagnac, p (1898) La legislation civile de la revolution Françise, Paris, Librairie Hachette et Cie.
  38. • Godechot, J (1968) Les institutions de la France sous la revolution et l’empire , paris, presses universitaires de France,
  39. • Anchel, R (1933)cimes et chàtiments qu XVIII siècle ; Paris ; Libraire qcademique Perrin .
  40. • Von Bar C.L (1916) A history of continental criminal law, in continental legal history, London, John Murry, Vol.X,
  41. • Maulin, Eric (1995) Le Principe du contrôle de la constitutionnalite des lois dans la pecsee de R.Carre de Malberg," Revue Française de Droit Constitutionnel, no.21.
  42. • Carbonnier, Jean (1979) La passion des lois au siècle des Lumières," in Essais sur les lois ,Paris, Defrenois.
  43. • Brissqud ; J (2001) A history of French public law, in continental legal history, London, John Murry, Vol.IX.